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How It Works: Water Well Pump

Nov 29th, 2021 at 19:40   Automobiles   Baytown   37 views Reference: 61

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How It Works: Water Well Pump 

If you live in a town or city, you probably don't give much thought to how the water you use each day gets to your house. Even small villages often provide a network of supply pipes that transport water to each home in the neighborhood. All you need to know is how to open the tap at the sink.


Move a few miles out of town and the picture can change. While the inner workings are still—thankfully—invisible, your water supply is independent from the neighbor's down the road. Each home has its own well from which to draw water. More than that, each home has its own electromechanical system for getting the water from the well to the house. At the heart of each system is a pump, and the most common types are jet pumps and submersible pumps.


Well types


In many areas of the country, finding potable water is as easy as getting out a shovel and digging a hole in the ground. Okay, maybe "easy" isn't the right word, but wherever the water table is only several feet below the surface of the ground, part of the battle may already be over. In such a shallow-well situation, lifting the water up to the house is going to be a little easier, if only because the distance you have to move it is modest.


If your area doesn't have a high water table, or if it lacks a stable supply of potable water near the surface, you must dig deeper to achieve the same result. And because a deep well means that the water has to be lifted farther, the strategies for moving it change.


Shallow-well pumps


These days, the most common pump for a shallow well is a jet pump. Jet pumps are mounted above the well, either in the home or in a well house, and draw the water up from the well through suction (see Single-Drop Jet-Pump System diagram on next page). Because suction is involved, atmospheric pressure is what's really doing the work. Think of the system as a long straw. As you suck on the straw, you create a vacuum in the straw above the water. Once the vacuum is there, the weight of the air, or atmospheric pressure, pushes the water up the straw. Consequently, the height that you can lift the water with a shallow-well jet pump relates to the weight of the air. While air pressure varies with elevation, it's common to limit the depth of a jet-pump-operated shallow well to about 25 ft. There is also deep well pump.


Jet pumps create suction in a rather novel way. The pump is powered by an electric motor that drives an impeller, or centrifugal pump. The impeller moves water, called drive water, from the well through a narrow orifice, or jet, mounted in the housing in front of the impeller. This constriction at the jet causes the speed of the moving water to increase, much like the nozzle on a garden hose. As the water leaves the jet, a partial vacuum is created that sucks additional water from the well. Directly behind the jet is a Venturi tube that increases in diameter. Its function is to slow down the water and increase the pressure. The pumped water–new water that's drawn from the well by the suction at the jet–then combines with the drive water to discharge into the plumbing system at high pressure.


Because shallow-well jet pumps and deep well water pump use water to draw water, they generally need to be primed–filled with water–before they'll work. To keep water in the pump and plumbing system from flowing back down into the well, a 1-way check valve is installed in the feed line to the pump.


Solar Powered Water Pumping


Any renewable energy source can make the electricity needed to power various appliances, including pumps. Solar electric power in particular is a reliable and economic choice for powering remote water pumping. Solar water pumping systems are in common use for garden fountains, livestock watering, and large-scale watering needs for commercial installations. 


Cattle ranchers all over the world are enthusiastic solar pump users because their water sources may be spread over large areas of rangeland that lack utility power and where generator use would be expensive and impractical. Photovoltaic (PV) panels are therefore in widespread use for reliably producing electricity directly from sunlight to power livestock and irrigation watering systems. When properly designed, PV-powered pumping systems can result in significant long-term cost savings and a smaller environmental footprint compared to conventional power systems.


System Design Considerations

A typical solar-powered water pump system, which includes a solar array, controller, pump, and storage tank. (Source: “The Montana Agsolar Project – Expanding the Agricultural Uses of Solar Energy in Montana.”)


A solar-powered water pumping system consists of four parts:  the actual pump which moves the water, the controller which adjusts the pump speed and output power as the solar panel input varies, the engine, and the solar panels. The specifics of the system design are determined by the following considerations:

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